Examining the Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Self-Reported Teaching Tasks of Online Faculty

Concurrent Session 6

Session Materials

Brief Abstract

The purpose of this presentation is to examine the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and self-reported teaching tasks of online faculty. This session will provide insight on institutional training initiatives that will promote a culture of collegiality and productive relationships between faculty, students and administrators.

 

Presenters

Dr. Maus has taught in the higher education field, both in an online and seated environment. Her career in higher education originated as an adjunct instructor in 2005. Her full-time position in higher education began in 2010. She teaches business and healthcare administration courses. She has developed an Associate degree in Business with a specialization in Health Care Administration, a Bachelor degree in Organizational Management with a specialization in Healthcare Administration, in addition to, a Bachelor of Science in Healthcare Administration. Dr. Maus has had the opportunity to work in the healthcare industry since 1991 in a variety of different capacities within hospitals, in the medical employment industry in sales, and for a highly specialized laboratory testing facility. Additionally, Dr. Maus has worked with the National American Red Cross on a special database management project involving donors throughout the United States. During her tenure at On Assignment, Inc., she was awarded the prestigious honor of President's Club Affiliation twice for outstanding marketing and sales performance. She has served as Project Manager/Champion for a Go Green initiative in a private laboratory of 400+ employees. Dr. Maus presented in 2013, 2014, 2016, and 2017 at the Online Learning Consortium International Conference in Orlando, Florida, the Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference in 2015 and 2016, and at the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning conference in 2017, 2018, and 2019. She reviewed three textbooks for Elsevier, Inc., and has acted in 2013 and 2015 as an abstract reviewer for the American Public Health Association annual conference. Dr. Maus published an article in 2017 titled Using Taskstream-Tk20 to Help Faculty Close the Loop on Assessment. Her dissertation, published in 2018, is titled Examining the Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors within Hospitals. She is the 2019 recipient of the Service to Campus Tiffin University award.
Dr. Mejri is an Assistant Dean of Graduate Education in the School of Arts and Science at Tiffin University. He has earned a Bachelor of Science from BGSU, a Master of Science Education from the University of Toledo, and a Ph.D. in International Education from Northcentral University. Over the past ten years, Dr. Mejri has served as a full-time faculty teaching Mathematics, Science, and Foreign Languages. In 2009, he was awarded instructor of the year from the Ohio Association of Career Colleges and Schools through the Lincoln College of Technology. At Tiffin University, he oversaw online programs, assisted and served as Subject Matter Expert in the development of new courses and programs. Dr. Mejri's research focus is in Comparative and International education with an emphasis on virtual learning. Over the past two years, he has reviewed foreign language programs for Pearson Education and served as a peer reviewer for various online journals.
Dr. Meadows began her educational career teaching mathematics and reading to middle school students (grades 7 & 8) in an alternative program in Akron, Ohio. After graduation with her B.S. in Middle Childhood she taught 6-8 grade math and science in Ravenna, Ohio. In this setting, she had the experience of working a range of gifted students, to students with emotional disorders and learning disabilities. These diverse and varied student backgrounds motivated her to continue learning and reflecting on her practice to improve her teaching. To complete these goals of improvement, she decided to work on her Masters which led to a Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction. After the completion of her doctorate, she decided to make a professional move toward collegiate teaching. She taught part-time at Tiffin University while continuing to stay current in the schools as a substitute teacher (grades K-12) for three years. Now, as a full-time faculty member at Tiffin University, she serves as the Chair for the M.Ed. program and teaches courses for undergraduates on campus and masters level students in an online environment. She am passionate about teaching and learning and continuing her professional development. Her research interests include: teacher noticing and reflecting, co-teaching, scaffolding and differentiation, pre-service teacher learning, mathematics teaching, and the integration of technology in the classroom. She believes in life-long learning and hopes to pass her own passion of teaching and learning onto her students.

Extended Abstract

The increase in the national student loan debt coupled with the actual and perceived decline in educational standards was the focus of recent scholarly discussions (Baum, 2016; Goldrick-Rab, Anderson,  & Kinsley, 2016; Williams, 2019). Ultimately, an impactful and life-long education begins with a positive learning experience. To this end, the purpose of this presentation is to examine the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and self-reported teaching tasks of online faculty. This session will share the research, methods, and recommendations based upon survey data collected and analyzed from one private four-year university. The data was collected based off of existing instrumentation tested for both reliability and validity. The sample for this study consisted of online faculty who have taught at least three classes within the last calendar year. The data was collected through the use of Qualtrics, and participation in the study was anonymous and optional. Researchers adapted questions within the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) Survey that was created by Vigoda-Gadot, Beeri, Birman-Shemesh and Somech (2007) to assess organizational citizenship behaviors of online faculty.  Researchers also incorporated and adapted questions within the dimensions of Administration/Leadership and Active Teaching/Responsiveness of the Self-reported Teaching Tasks survey, which was developed by Bigatel, Ragan, Kennan, May and Redmond (2012) to assess self-reported teaching tasks (Appendix A). This research study was guided by the theory of person-job fit that was founded by Kristoff-Brown and Guay (2011). The person-job fit is based on the potential relationship between an individual’s characteristics and their ability to perform given tasks of the job.  

The research question that guided this study is:  

What relationship, if any, does organizational citizenship behaviors have on the score for self-reported teaching tasks of online faculty?

H0: There is no relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and the score for self-reported teaching tasks among online faculty.

H1:  There is a relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and the score for self-reported teaching tasks among online faculty.

To analyze the self-reported survey data, researchers conducted a simple regression test  to determine the impact the independent variable, organizational citizenship behaviors, has on the dependent variable which was identified as the self-reported score of teaching tasks. The results from this statistical analysis will be shared with participants.

Currently, colleges and universities are experiencing a decline in enrollment (Fain, 2018). According to Lederman (2018) “Without online education, college and university enrollments would be declining even more.” A report from the Education Department’s National Center for Educational Statistics, while enrollment dropped half of a percentage point, online enrollment grew by 5.7 percent in 2017.  Therefore, it is essential for colleges and universities to ensure that online faculty are engaging above and beyond their job description in hopes that they positively impact the student learning experience. This quantitative research study adds value to existing knowledge about teaching and learning.  The research study specifically examines the role of the educator in the context of organizational citizenship behavior and its impact on their self-reported teaching tasks. Findings from this study will offer faculty, administrators, and stakeholders within the ecology of higher education the opportunity to envision and then structure mentoring. Information from this quantitative study could potentially be utilized as a tool during the interviewing screening process. Finally, this session will provide insight on institutional training initiatives that will promote a culture of collegiality and productive relationships among faculty, students and administrators. Participants will leave with an understanding of the methodology along with a research instrument in order to devise specific professional development opportunities that align with the strengths and weaknesses of their online faculty.  

Appendix A

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors & Self-Reported Teaching Tasks Survey

Tier I: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB)

1. I complete assigned duties adequately.

2. I fulfill responsibilities specified in my job description.

3. I fulfill the supervisor’s expectations.

4. I meet the formal performance required of the job

5. I engage in activities that will directly affect my performance evaluation

6. I neglect aspects of the job that I am obligated to perform (r)

7. I perform essential duties successfully.

8. I help students who have been absent due to face unforeseen circumstances.

9. I help students who struggle with time management.

10. I assist the supervisor with his or her work (when not asked)

11. I take time to listen to colleagues’ concerns

12. I go out of my way to help new colleagues

13. I take a personal interest in other employees.

14. I pass along information to students that is shared by administration.

15. My presence in the online setting is above the norm.

16. I give advance notice when unable to complete my duties

17. I take undeserved work breaks (r).

18. I spend a great deal of time on the internet when I should be in my online classroom (r)

19. I complain about insignificant things at work (r).

20. I conserve and protect organizational property.

21. I adhere to informal rules devised —to maintain order.

22.  I support initiatives of collegiality and mentoring at this institution.

23. I cover/substitute for colleagues

24. I help people outside my department (advising, registrars, administration, etc.).

25. I have a strong volunteer orientation.

26. I make innovative suggestions.

27. I coast toward the end of the term (r).

Tier II: Self-Reported Teaching Tasks

28. I make grading visible for student tracking purposes

29. I clearly communicate expected student behaviors

30. I am proficient in the chosen course management system

31. I adhere to the university's policies regarding the Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA)  

32. I integrate the use of technology that is meaningful and relevant to students

33. I provide prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning.

34.   I provide clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.

35. I show caring and concern that students are learning the course content.

36. I help keep the course participants on task.  

37. I use appropriate strategies to manage the online workload..

References

Baum, S. (2016). Student debt : rhetoric and realities of higher education financing. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.tu.opal-libraries.org/login.aspx?direct=tru...

Bigatel, P. M.,Ragan, L. C.; Kennan, S., May, J. & Redmond, B. F. (2012).The identification of competencies for online teaching. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(1), 59-77. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/j/ISSN-1939-5256/

Goldrick-Rab, S., Anderson, D. M., & Kinsley, P. (2016). Paying the Price : College Costs, Financial Aid, and the Betrayal of the American Dream. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.tu.opal-libraries.org/login.aspx?direct=tru...

Fain, P. (2018). Latest data on enrollment declines.  Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/admissions/article/2018/05/29/new-data-en...

Kristof-Brown, A., & Guay, R. P. (2011). Person–environment fit. In S. Zedeck & S. Zedeck (Ed) (Eds.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol 3: Maintaining, expanding, and contracting the organization. (pp. 3–50). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.tu.opal-libraries.org/10.1037/12171-001

Leaderman, D. (2018). Online education assends. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/article/2018/11/07/new-d...  

Vigoda-Gadot, E., Beeri, I., Birman-Shemesh, T., & Somech, A. (2007). Group-Level Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Education System: A Scale Reconstruction and Validation. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(4), 462–493. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X07299435

Williams, J. D. (2019). The Decline in Educational Standards : From a Public Good to a Quasi-Monopoly. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.tu.opal-libraries.org/login.aspx?direct=tru...