Examining the Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Self-Reported Teaching Tasks of Online Faculty
Concurrent Session 6
The purpose of this presentation is to examine the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and self-reported teaching tasks of online faculty. This session will provide insight on institutional training initiatives that will promote a culture of collegiality and productive relationships between faculty, students and administrators.
The increase in the national student loan debt coupled with the actual and perceived decline in educational standards was the focus of recent scholarly discussions (Baum, 2016; Goldrick-Rab, Anderson, & Kinsley, 2016; Williams, 2019). Ultimately, an impactful and life-long education begins with a positive learning experience. To this end, the purpose of this presentation is to examine the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and self-reported teaching tasks of online faculty. This session will share the research, methods, and recommendations based upon survey data collected and analyzed from one private four-year university. The data was collected based off of existing instrumentation tested for both reliability and validity. The sample for this study consisted of online faculty who have taught at least three classes within the last calendar year. The data was collected through the use of Qualtrics, and participation in the study was anonymous and optional. Researchers adapted questions within the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) Survey that was created by Vigoda-Gadot, Beeri, Birman-Shemesh and Somech (2007) to assess organizational citizenship behaviors of online faculty. Researchers also incorporated and adapted questions within the dimensions of Administration/Leadership and Active Teaching/Responsiveness of the Self-reported Teaching Tasks survey, which was developed by Bigatel, Ragan, Kennan, May and Redmond (2012) to assess self-reported teaching tasks (Appendix A). This research study was guided by the theory of person-job fit that was founded by Kristoff-Brown and Guay (2011). The person-job fit is based on the potential relationship between an individual’s characteristics and their ability to perform given tasks of the job.
The research question that guided this study is:
What relationship, if any, does organizational citizenship behaviors have on the score for self-reported teaching tasks of online faculty?
H0: There is no relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and the score for self-reported teaching tasks among online faculty.
H1: There is a relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and the score for self-reported teaching tasks among online faculty.
To analyze the self-reported survey data, researchers conducted a simple regression test to determine the impact the independent variable, organizational citizenship behaviors, has on the dependent variable which was identified as the self-reported score of teaching tasks. The results from this statistical analysis will be shared with participants.
Currently, colleges and universities are experiencing a decline in enrollment (Fain, 2018). According to Lederman (2018) “Without online education, college and university enrollments would be declining even more.” A report from the Education Department’s National Center for Educational Statistics, while enrollment dropped half of a percentage point, online enrollment grew by 5.7 percent in 2017. Therefore, it is essential for colleges and universities to ensure that online faculty are engaging above and beyond their job description in hopes that they positively impact the student learning experience. This quantitative research study adds value to existing knowledge about teaching and learning. The research study specifically examines the role of the educator in the context of organizational citizenship behavior and its impact on their self-reported teaching tasks. Findings from this study will offer faculty, administrators, and stakeholders within the ecology of higher education the opportunity to envision and then structure mentoring. Information from this quantitative study could potentially be utilized as a tool during the interviewing screening process. Finally, this session will provide insight on institutional training initiatives that will promote a culture of collegiality and productive relationships among faculty, students and administrators. Participants will leave with an understanding of the methodology along with a research instrument in order to devise specific professional development opportunities that align with the strengths and weaknesses of their online faculty.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors & Self-Reported Teaching Tasks Survey
Tier I: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB)
1. I complete assigned duties adequately.
2. I fulfill responsibilities specified in my job description.
3. I fulfill the supervisor’s expectations.
4. I meet the formal performance required of the job
5. I engage in activities that will directly affect my performance evaluation
6. I neglect aspects of the job that I am obligated to perform (r)
7. I perform essential duties successfully.
8. I help students who have been absent due to face unforeseen circumstances.
9. I help students who struggle with time management.
10. I assist the supervisor with his or her work (when not asked)
11. I take time to listen to colleagues’ concerns
12. I go out of my way to help new colleagues
13. I take a personal interest in other employees.
14. I pass along information to students that is shared by administration.
15. My presence in the online setting is above the norm.
16. I give advance notice when unable to complete my duties
17. I take undeserved work breaks (r).
18. I spend a great deal of time on the internet when I should be in my online classroom (r)
19. I complain about insignificant things at work (r).
20. I conserve and protect organizational property.
21. I adhere to informal rules devised —to maintain order.
22. I support initiatives of collegiality and mentoring at this institution.
23. I cover/substitute for colleagues
24. I help people outside my department (advising, registrars, administration, etc.).
25. I have a strong volunteer orientation.
26. I make innovative suggestions.
27. I coast toward the end of the term (r).
Tier II: Self-Reported Teaching Tasks
28. I make grading visible for student tracking purposes
29. I clearly communicate expected student behaviors
30. I am proficient in the chosen course management system
31. I adhere to the university's policies regarding the Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA)
32. I integrate the use of technology that is meaningful and relevant to students
33. I provide prompt, helpful feedback on assignments and exams that enhances learning.
34. I provide clear, detailed feedback on assignments and exams that enhances the learning experience.
35. I show caring and concern that students are learning the course content.
36. I help keep the course participants on task.
37. I use appropriate strategies to manage the online workload..
Baum, S. (2016). Student debt : rhetoric and realities of higher education financing. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.tu.opal-libraries.org/login.aspx?direct=tru...
Bigatel, P. M.,Ragan, L. C.; Kennan, S., May, J. & Redmond, B. F. (2012).The identification of competencies for online teaching. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(1), 59-77. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/j/ISSN-1939-5256/
Goldrick-Rab, S., Anderson, D. M., & Kinsley, P. (2016). Paying the Price : College Costs, Financial Aid, and the Betrayal of the American Dream. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.tu.opal-libraries.org/login.aspx?direct=tru...
Fain, P. (2018). Latest data on enrollment declines. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/admissions/article/2018/05/29/new-data-en...
Kristof-Brown, A., & Guay, R. P. (2011). Person–environment fit. In S. Zedeck & S. Zedeck (Ed) (Eds.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol 3: Maintaining, expanding, and contracting the organization. (pp. 3–50). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.tu.opal-libraries.org/10.1037/12171-001
Leaderman, D. (2018). Online education assends. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/article/2018/11/07/new-d...
Vigoda-Gadot, E., Beeri, I., Birman-Shemesh, T., & Somech, A. (2007). Group-Level Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Education System: A Scale Reconstruction and Validation. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(4), 462–493. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X07299435
Williams, J. D. (2019). The Decline in Educational Standards : From a Public Good to a Quasi-Monopoly. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.tu.opal-libraries.org/login.aspx?direct=tru...