PAPER PARTS

Please refer to APA Manual 6th edition for complete details.

Abstract – An abstract summarizes the major aspects of the entire paper including: 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings; and, 4) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.

Introduction –As appropriate to your methodology briefly summarize current understanding about the topic. Briefly explain your rationale, methodological approach, highlight the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and describe the remaining structure of the paper. This section should include reference to some or all of the following as appropriate to the method employed:

  • Introduce the problem  – what is the focus of your study?
  • Explore importance of the problem – why should we care about this topic?
  • What does the current research suggest or conclude? (not a literature review, brief references to other work in the area)
  • In a few sentences lay out the structure of the rest of the paper.

Literature Review Provide an overview of sources that demonstrate to your readers how your research fits into the larger field of study.

  • Describe relevant scholarship through a review of related literature. Reference both theory or conceptual literature and empirical literature as relevant.
  • Conclude by  stating hypotheses, conjectures and/or research questions and their correspondence to research that was reviewed

Method – The purpose of this section is to describe how your data was collected or generated as well as how you conducted the data analysis. This section should include reference to some or all of the following as appropriate to the method employed.

  • Study population/sampling — what is the source of the data, how reliable is it? Note the procedures used for their selection;
  • Data collection – explain the methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; Describe methods used to obtain the data; Note if the data was pre-existing (e.g. government data) or gathered by the researchers. If gathered by the researcher, describe what instrument(s) used and why. Describe any limitations in methodology.
  • Data analysis – describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective.

Results – Report the findings of your study based upon the information collected as a result of the methodology/methodologies used. The results section should present the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence.

Discussion

Discuss the results of the study in relation to theory, previous research, practice, and or policy. Include directions for future research as appropriate.

References – following APA 6th edition format. These are listed in alphabetical order with a hanging indent.

Examples

Read https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/06/ for general rules on creating references.

Periodicals

Author, A.A. (Year of publication). Article title in sentence case. Journal Title in italics, Volume (issue if available), pages. doi: xxx (if doi is available)

McComas, W.F. (2008). Seeking historical examples to illustrate key aspects of the nature of science. Science & Education, 17, 249-263.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Article title in sentence case. Journal Title in italics, Volume(issue if available), pages. doi: xxx (if doi is available)

Wirkala, C., and Kuhn, D. (2011). Problem-based learning in K–12 education: Is it effective and how does it achieve its effects? American Educational Research Journal,  48(5), 1157-1186. doi: 10.312/0002831211419491

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Article title in sentence case. Journal Title in italics, Volume(issue if available), pages. doi: xxx (if doi is available)

Aviv, R., Erlich, Z., Ravid, G., & Geva, A. (2003). Network analysis of knowledge construction in asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(3), 1-23.

For more examples, see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/07/.

Online Periodicals

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

See https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ for citing other electronic sources.

Books

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Book title in italics. City, State: Publishing Company.

Dewey, J. (1902).  The school and society and the child and the curriculum. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Book title in italics. City, State: Publishing Company.

Collins, J., & Blot, R. K. (2003). Literacy and literacies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Edited Books

Editor, A. A.., & Editor, B. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Book title in italics. City, State: Publishing Company.

Bruce, S., & Rafoth, B. (Eds.). (2009). ESL Writers: A Guide for Writing Center Tutors (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc.

Book Chapters

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.),Title of book in italics (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Palmer, P.J. (1998). The heart of a teacher. The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life (pp. 9-33). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

For more examples on citing books, see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/08/

Conference Proceedings

Editor, A. A.., & Editor, B.  (Eds.). (Year of conference). Proceedings from Conference Name:Conference Title. City, State: Publishing company.

For more information on citing other print sources, see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/09/.

Refer to Purdue OWL (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/) for other types of references.

Appendices and Supplemental Material

  • Appendices
  • Supplemental materials

About the authors